Sunday, August 23, 2020

Critical Essay Topics Meet the Vast Issues to Discuss in a College Paper!

Basic Essay Topics Meet the Vast Issues to Discuss in a College Paper! At the point when we hear the word â€Å"Critical†, for us it takes after to freezing and disarray and that is the reason we state it is one of the troublesome kinds of papers. It generally is even hard for understudies even to begin thinking on it. With respect to a considerable lot of us, the word â€Å"critical† consistently takes us to a negative state or circumstance however, luckily, it isn't in every case valid for basic articles. Basic exposition papers consistently reflect abilities of the author. Along these lines, basic exposition composing requires high basic examination abilities and a positive bearing so as to give the article an appropriate and strong closure. A basic paper for the most part profoundly tests a theme, an article or a book. It is essential to make reference to the data about the author, editors and the specialists identified with basic article subject. A fine basic article must contain your own feeling about the subject. Other than your own conclusion it is important to give various confirmations and information found in related books, articles and sites. The start of a basic exposition is given by a short rundown of the author’s thoughts and contemplations on the topic followed by the realities and the reasons which support author’s thoughts. It likewise contains author’s straightforwardly communicated and inferred qualities and ends and recommendations based on author’s perspective. The following piece of a basic article contains the basic examination or the assessment of author’s work. Assessment of the author’s work in basic articles contains the realities and thinking. It is essential to have author’s position however thought of different positions is required too. A basic paper must be enlightening as it contains various realities about artistic works. The perspective of the creator must be bolstered by confirmations. The end of the paper is finished by giving a strong declared end repeating the title and author’s perspective. The way toward picking basic articles themes can differ from individual to individual and they are tremendous as there are numerous issues which individuals like to examine and specify. For instance, you can pick â€Å"Democracy† as a theme as various perspectives can be given on this subject. At present â€Å"Policy of Barack Obama† can be picked as the subject of basic article. Like these you can expound on Islam and the world, Shakespeare’s Hamlet, male controlled society and matriarchy, Effect of George Bush’s procedure on the world, subjugation, atomic war heads, culture and craftsmanship, literary works, Racism, the job of banks in world emergency and some more. Any subject which needs a conversation can be utilized as the subject of you basic article. Any point can be picked however the subject is legitimate for you just when you have enough information and data about it. All you need is to adhere to the directions and begin composing on the theme you have picked.

Friday, August 21, 2020

360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare

Dynamic Healthcare associations have a novel arrangement of difficulties, especially with regards to estimating execution and understanding advancement needs. Some are solid at estimating clinical or useful aptitudes. However few are similarly capable at surveying the non-clinical abilities that are so essential to by and large achievement in a human services association. 360-degree input can assume a noteworthy job in understanding the opposite side of execution, those aptitudes that are not legitimately attached to everyday, work explicit capacity. As opposed to depending on the impression of one individual, 360-degree criticism considers various points of view. This is particularly significant when one individual (I. e. , the employee’s supervisor) doesn't have the chance to watch all zones of the employee’s execution. Those working close by the worker, alongside the chief, are commonly ready to give a progressively thorough gander at the employee’s conduct as well as execution. 360-Degree Performance Reviews Provide Greater Feedback in Healthcare I. Presentation Performance of individual representatives is key to the drawn out achievement of an association. Medicinal services associations have a novel arrangement of difficulties, especially with regards to estimating execution and understanding improvement needs. Some are solid at estimating clinical or practical abilities. However few are similarly adroit at surveying the non-clinical aptitudes that are so essential to generally speaking achievement in a human services association. Clinical, or utilitarian, capacity is at the base of social insurance execution. Be that as it may, having these aptitudes doesn't generally guarantee achievement. Sadly, numerous associations disregard â€Å"soft side† abilities like correspondence and relationship the executives, seeing these relational and conduct aptitudes as â€Å"nice to have† characteristics. However absence of relational execution is something that for the most part can't be made up for by even the most grounded of clinical abilities (Maylett, 2009). II. Desires for the Consumer Issues of execution and profitability are persistently being investigated by the pioneers of medicinal services associations. Despite the fact that cost is urrently the main thrust for social insurance framework change, there is as yet extraordinary worry for the nature of the human services gave. Buyers of social insurance administrations are currently asking â€Å"How would i be able to get the best consideration for minimal measure of cash? † This implies for an association to increase uppe r hand, they should ensure that not exclusively is the nature of care high, yet the cost should likewise be sensible when contrasted with different suppliers of comparative administrations. Similarly significant for the social insurance association to perceive is that the meaning of value execution isn't â€Å"value-neutral†. Measures are consistently developing to reflect changes in values, new logical discoveries, new innovation, changes in administrative prerequisites and laws and changes in the medicinal services commercial center. The adjustments in these norms mirror the contrasts between the buyer and the patient. The human services buyer is concerned how viably their dollars are spent and getting the most consideration for their cash, while the patient anticipates that the medicinal services supplier should be receptive to their individual needs (Popovich, 1998). As of now, the Joint Commission requires authorize human services associations to evaluate, follow and improve the skill all things considered (Fried and Fottler, 2008). Furthermore, the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Awards best strategic policies incorporates a model that is as a rule progressively followed by the social insurance industry that tends to key human asset rehearses coordinated toward making a superior working environment and toward creating staff by execution the board frameworks (Kuzmits, Adams, Sussman and Rabo, 2004). As cost balances out and turns out to be progressively adjusted across suppliers, quality will turn out to be increasingly significant in choosing which association or supplier to utilize. As per the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, â€Å"accurate, complete and significant execution information can furnish clients of authoritative administrations with target proof on which quality decisions can be based. † Patients and shoppers presently reliably survey the presentation history of medicinal services suppliers, associations and frameworks. In this manner, those suppliers ought to survey their presentation to help recognize open doors for development (Popovich). III. Execution Assessment and Management Having a well-working execution the executives framework can enable the association to decide a few things, including the viability of their choice procedure, the adequacy of their preparation components and whether the organization’s pay program is powerful at driving representatives to perform at a more significant level. Execution the board alludes to a lot of instruments and practices that comprises of defining objectives with workers, structuring methodologies to make and support improvement, observing advancement toward accomplishing objectives, progressing criticism and training by managers and friends, and estimating singular execution. Directors and representatives will in general be uncomfortable with execution the executives and surveys, considering the procedure awkward, exceptionally ineffective and some of the time even superfluous. Directors are frequently awkward with plunking down to examine worries about execution with workers and representatives regularly feel just as their administrators are being basic and stooping during the procedure. Confusing issues is that presentation evaluations and audits can be incredibly passionate, particularly when legitimately attached to an employee’s potential pay. Customary execution examinations have included the employee’s director gathering data about the representative, watching their presentation and afterward sharing that data back with the worker. The survey may incorporate conversations about advancement, change in pay, disciplinary activity, move or proposals for preparing. One worry with these sorts of appraisals is that they are regularly dependent upon the predispositions and subjectivity of a solitary person. Given the intricacy of most human services occupations, it is regularly ridiculous for one individual to precisely depict the employee’s execution. What's more, customary execution evaluation done only for managerial reasons might be not exactly sufficient for empowering advancement, vocation arranging or execution improvement (Jackson and Greller, 1998). Another worry with the customary single source execution examination is that administrators just view execution from one viewpoint and frequently can't straightforwardly watch worker execution. Besides, administrator based examination frameworks don't handily catch numerous significant worker commitments, for example, aiding and preparing associates and being acceptable cooperative people (Fedor, Bettenhausen and Davis, 1999). IV. Multi-source, or 360-degree, Performance Reviews Assessing execution in today’s complex human services condition hates a test to the medicinal services calling. So as to adequately assess execution inside this complex and advancing condition, assessment from different sources is required. Among the most helpful approaches to gather work execution data is to utilize numerous sources, or 360-degree input. This strategy perceives that for most positions, depending on one wellspring of data about an employee’s execution prompts inadequate and freq uently incorrect data. This is particularly significant when one individual (I. e. the employee’s chief) doesn't have the chance to watch all territories of the employee’s execution. Those working close by the representative, alongside the chief, are commonly ready to give an increasingly extensive gander at the employee’s conduct or potentially execution. Input is a crucial piece of execution, development and advancement. Getting ourselves and how we communicate with others causes us to comprehend what sway we have on everyone around us. A 360-degree evaluation gives an extensive synopsis of an employee’s aptitudes, capacities, styles and occupation related capabilities. The rationale fundamental 360-degree criticism is that there are numerous wellsprings of data in associations, and quite a bit of that data is accessible both to the administrator and to the representative. Associates, clients, different chiefs and even the worker themselves can be wellsprings of input (Jackson and Greller). Basically, 360-degree input is a strategy for assessing an employee’s execution dependent on criticism from everybody with whom the individual comes in contact †managers, associates, accomplices, subordinates, even the overall population. This kind of criticism assists workers with considering themselves to be others see them and permits them to genuinely analyze their conduct. It permits them to see how others see their adequacy and become progressively aware of how their viability as an individual, associate or worker is seen by others. It can uncover regions in which workers are performing especially well and those zones in which there is opportunity to get better. 360-degree criticism furnishes the representative and the association with an abundance of data including the accompanying: †¢ an expansion in self-information for the worker empowers constant learning †¢ animates the representative to upgrade their qualities †¢ recognizes zones that need advancement or improvement †¢ gives direction to positive change †¢ bolsters instructing and coaching activities This data assists with building an organization between the individual and the association to keep up the procedure of consistent de velopment (Bentley, n. d. ). This survey procedure is additionally useful for the manager †it can give an increasingly precise appraisal of an employee’s execution and help dispense with accusat

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Volleyball Vertical Jump

The improvement of these abilities is quite important for a volleyball player, being the muscular strength many times the priority for the young athlete. Several studies have reported significant improvements in vertical jump following resistance training (Baker et al, 1994 ) and (Stone et al, 1981).The purpose of strength training for volleyball is not to build big muscles, but to develop the physical characteristics necessary to improve a player’s performance. Strength training is very important to volleyball and however, should not be developed independently from other abilities such as agility, speed and endurance. This program is designed mainly to improve the skill of vertical jump in volleyball for players with moderate to advanced experience. Needs Analysis Needs analysis focuses on the fitness needs of both the activity (vertical jump) and the athlete involved in the sport (volleyball). Sport analysis Successful participation in volleyball sport requires expertise in many physical skills and performance is often dependent on an individual’s ability to propel themselves into the air during both offensive and defensive manoeuvres. These movements include the jump serve, spike, and block. During the carrying out of a jump serve or a spike, the player jumps high into the air and strikes the ball at the highest point of their jump in an effort to propel the ball rapidly down towards the opposing side of the net. Defensively, front row players defend against spikes by jumping into the air with their hands raised in an effort to impede the offensive attack. Unlike offensive jumps, defensive jumps are not maximal vertical jump efforts. There are many factors that are involved in an athlete’s vertical jump and many factors that are involved in improving an athlete’s vertical jump. Vertical jump mainly involves use of the lower limbs. However, the upper limbs pl ay an important role in vertical jump activity. Feltner et al (1999) and Harman et al (1990) concluded that using an arm swing during vertical jumping improved performance over no arm swing. An upward swing causes a downward force on the trunk which in turn slows the rate of contraction of the leg muscles allowing the muscles to contract at a slower velocity and thus generates more force. The fact that an arm swing is so important to vertical jumping performance, may indicate that there is a technique or skill component to vertical jumping, rather than just leg power (Young, 1995). Another biomechanical aspect of vertical jump is the bi-lateral deficit. Bi-lateral deficit results in different heights one-leg versus two-leg vertical jump. The maximal height achieved from one-legged jump is approximately 60% of the maximal two-legged height (Challis, 1998). The possible reason for this deficit may be a neuromuscular adaptation. One-leg jump requires a maximal recruitment of musc le fibres due to less muscle mass available. Furthermore, the height that is achieved by the vertical jump has a direct correlation with the amount of force that is produced by the muscle fibres. This force is created by a phenomenon known as the stretch-shortening cycle of muscle fibres. The stretch-shortening cycle is a natural reaction by muscle fibres to slow the body from fast movements and prevent injury to the individual involved (Kraemer and Newton, 1994). The stretch-shortening cycle involves a counter-movement when a muscle fibre is rapidly stretched creating tension within the muscle. A counter-movement occurs when the muscles are eccentrically stretched, and then rapidly shortened to accelerate the body in the opposite direction and achieve the reverse desirable action. To accomplish this, the muscles act eccentrically to slow the body and initiate the reverse desirable movement (Kraemer and Newton, 1994). This cycle is critical to vertical jump performance. As the individual flexes the knees to jump, the stretch shortening cycle is activated and the athlete explodes into the jump. Newton et al (1997) claimed that there may be an even more important factor to producing more forceful contractions. The research that they conducted came to the conclusion that force output did increase as a function of load, but lighter loads also produced more force because of the speed that the muscle was contracting. In terms of muscle fibre type, elite volleyball players typically show muscle fibre percentages of around 52-60% Fast Twitch muscle fibre composition, which compare favourably to samples from elite level sprinters and jumpers (45-80%FT) (Conlee et al, 1982). A final biomechanical feature of vertical jumps involves the mechanics of the two-joint muscles of the lower limbs. The major muscle groups of the lower extremities involved in vertical jump are the hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. All these muscle groups are bi-articulated musc les that cross over multiple joints. The sequence of muscle activation occurs through a proximal to distal pattern (Pandy, 1991). Thus, the gluteus maximus and hamstrings are activated first with a distinct goal of accelerating the trunk upward after countermovement. The activation continues downward through thigh, shank and finally to the toes. Therefore, all of the lower limb muscles must work in order to develop an explosive power. Energy source Research has shown that elite volleyball players to rely primarily upon their anaerobic energy system to supply energy demands during a match (Conlee et al, 1982). However, matches can last up to two and a half hours; therefore some aerobic component must be present as well. Volleyball is 90% anaerobic and 10% aerobic (Baechle et al, 2000). The aerobic energy system may not be relied upon during matches, but it is certainly important during training sessions, rest, and recovery periods. In relation to the specific composition of muscle fibres, it has been suggested that athletes with a well developed anaerobic power capacity will generate more power than athletes with a high aerobic power capacity (Conlee et al, 1982). Primary sites of injury The mechanisms and frequencies of injury in volleyball are well documented. The jump-landing sequence is the most common source of injury in volleyball (Briner and Kacmar, 1997). In fact, blocking and spiking are linked with over 70% of volleyball injuries (Watkins and Green, 1992). Ferretti et al., (1992) hypothesized that the high number of jumps and the likelihood of losing balance due to deviations in jumping technique are the primary causes of injury during volleyball. The vast majority (90%) of volleyball injuries occur in the lower extremity with the knee joint being particularly vulnerable (Gerberich et al, 1987). Knee injuries are of particular importance because they are associated with more lost time from sports participation than other injury sites (Solgà ¥rd et al, 1995). A well-designed volleyball training program will also help to reduce the incidence and severity of injury in volleyball players. Despite being a non-contact sport, a three study found that volleyb all is the eighth most injury prone sport in the age group 14 to 20 years (De Loà «s ,1995). Program Design A well-structured volleyball training program can increase explosive power, vertical jump height, stamina and speed and agility around the court. Skill training alone, such as practising spikes, wont develop the physical traits necessary to play to the athletes full potential (Gabbett et al, 2006).Volleyball players have exceptional lower body power and perform well in the vertical jump test (Smith et al,1992). Power in the legs is needed to jump explosively off the ground in order to spike, block, set and dive. This program is designed to maximize the vertical jump for a professional volleyball player who is very interested in increasing his vertical jump to enhance his sport performance for the in-season period. It is a pre-season program which focuses on actual sport specific functions. Squatting, jumping, lateral stepping, hitting and spiking are all common volleyball movements. The pre-season volleyball strength training routine is less intense than the off-season. The goal is to maintain that strength and power, but to perfect sport specific movements. The subject is a full-time employee therefore he has no plenty of time for training. He also practises volleyball with no real schedule. He devotes his weekend to leisure activities and social commitments, so training must be scheduled during weekdays. Conveniently, the subject has no prior major sports injury and he was medically cleared fit for resistance training. The subject has good background of resistance training programs and he has been on training course over the past three months. His training included jogging for 30 minutes and some basic general strength exercises. In order to make strength a valuable physiological component, it must be trained in such a way that gains in strength lead to the highest levels of jumping power. This jumping power must then be effectively applied during the game. To achieve this, strength program is structured into three training phases that lead into th e competitive phase. This program consists of three phases (mesocycles) derived from a classic periodization model. These three phases are basic strength, explosive strength and reactive strength. Each phase is four weeks in length. Phase 1 This phase precedes explosive strength and reactive strength training. This is important even for experienced strength-trained athletes as the nature of competitive sport places uneven stresses on the body. The goal here is not to try to necessarily mimic sports movements, but rather just to increase the contractual force producing capabilities of the muscles that are involved in the vertical jump. This phase lasts for 4 weeks and it aims to balance strength between the two sides of the body. It also aims to restore correct balance between the flexors and extensors (such as the hamstrings and quadriceps for example). Attention will be paid to developing limit strength in the muscles of the quadriceps, glutes, hamstrings and lower back as these are the most important muscle groups for vertical jumping. The muscles of the hip extensors will be given special attention because they are usually the weak links in the large majority of athletes. These muscles are the glutes, hamstrings , and lower back. During this phase, training begins at a low intensity with high volume. It includes sport-specific exercises related to vertical jump as well as some non-specific exercises such as core exercises. Overload progress from 60% to 75% of 1RM. Repetitions per set range from 5 to 10 depending on how intense the exercise is. Phase 2 The goal of explosive strength exercises is to either perform the movement with more speed, or with more height. For example, try to jump higher while squatting with light to moderate weights. Generally, speed of movement, especially the beginning of the movement, is more important than the load involved when it comes to these exercises.Explosive strength movements focus on developing maximal starting and explosive strength, without much involvement of the reflexive stretch-shortening cycle .They essentially focus on applying max voluntary force as quickly as possible. In this phase plyometric exercises will be introduced particularly jumps in place and standing jump. Phase 3 Reactive strength exercises generally consist of jumps. The goal with the reactive strength exercises is to execute the movements with either less time spent on the ground or by jumping higher. These movements allow you to take advantage and build upon the reflexive forces that come from the plyometric effect. They are essential for anyone wanting to jump higher and run faster. This training uses the stretch-shortening cycle (stretch reflex) .The stretching reflex responds to the speed at which muscle/tendon complex is stretched prior to movement. Therefore, the faster and greater the stretch is the greater the corresponding reactive force will be. Specificity All exercises included in this program are designed to improve strength, neuromuscular adaptations and recruitment of muscles involved in vertical jump. Volleyball requires explosive movements with sequential use of muscles in a specific order. Olympic lifts strengthen muscles at a similar velocity and in the same order as needed in volleyball (Cross, 1993). Thus, this program will include use of Olympic lifts (snatch, clean and jerk). Most vertical jumping in volleyball is performed from static standing or from a two-step approach (Black, 1995). However, many upward and lateral movements of the upper limb are needed for blocking and spiking. Upper body and abdominal (trunk) strength has also been shown to be a contributing factor to vertical jump performance (Bobbert et al, 1994). Strength in the upper body, particularly the arms and shoulders helps to increase the strength throughout the trunk region which creates solid posture to help maximise jumping technique. Therefore, this program includes many exercises of upper body in order to strengthen all muscles involved in vertical jump.Other exercises (bench press, push press and core conditioning) are included in the program although they do not specifically improve vertical jump. These exercises are included to maintain muscular balance and enhance strength base. While this program is basically designed to improve the vertical jump, it would also be sufficient in developing upper and lower body strength and power. This program also includes some plyometric activities for both upper and lower limbs.Velocity specificity is an important consideration when designing resistance training programs for vertical jump. It indicates that training adaptations (e.g., increased strength/power) are greatest at or near the training velocity (Pereira and Gomes, 2003). However, there exists a conflicting hypothesis that the intention to move a barbell, one’s own body, or any other object explosively is mor e important than the actual movement velocity in determining velocity-specific responses of the neuromuscular system to resistance training (Behm and Sale, 1993)Plyometric training has been shown to be one of the most effective methods for improving explosive power (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004). A wide variety of athletes can benefit from power training, particularly if it follows or coincides with a strength training program. In order for plyometric training to be at its most effective it should follow a phase of maximal strength training (Baechle et al, 2000). The purpose of plyometrics is to improve the athlete’s capacity to apply more force more rapidly. Logically then, the greater the athlete’s ability to generate maximal force or strength to begin with, the more of it can be converted into sport-specific power. Weighted vertical jumps are included in this program for its popularity among training specialists and for its proven benefits in many studies. Baker et al . (2001) found that maximal power was achieved during weighted squat jumps with a 48-63% of 1RM squat. Moreover, Wilson et al. (1993) concluded that weighted jumps increased counter-movement and non-counter-movement vertical jump heights more than the traditional resistance training and plyometric. In the same way, Newton et al (1997) showed that ballistic jump squat training against 30, 60, and 80% 1RM improved vertical jump performance of elite volleyball players significantly more than squat and leg press training with 6RM loads. Subjects in both groups also completed the usual on-court volleyball practice, which involved a large volume of jumping activities. Harris et al. (2000) support this idea by showing the superiority of a combination of heavy- and light-load training to either training method alone in improving a variety of sports performance in football players. Accordingly, athletes may benefit most from resistance training using a range of loads with the intention to move explosively coupled with practicing of the actual sport movement Equipment and spotting This program relies mainly on free-weight training exercises including barbell and dumbbells. Other equipment include pulley and plyometric training facilities such as medicine balls, boxes and hurdles .Free weight training has some advantages over machine training such as whole body training and simulation of real sport activities. However, free weight training requires more balance and coordination. Therefore, spotting is highly required during training with free weights particularly with beginners and young athletes. This program has plenty of free weight exercises performed in different positions and angles and at different velocities therefore, spotting will be carried out for the most of exercises but special attention will be given to the most dangerous exercises such as overhead exercises and Olympic lifts. Intensity The intensity of the program starts at a low level and increases gradually throughout the program. 1RM strength was established at the beginning of the program by estimation from a 10RM test-measured value. 1RM is retested every two weeks after the initial test. However, 1RM will be estimated from 1RM-5RM at the beginning of the second mesocycle. Estimating the 1RM from 10RM provides a general guide until the trainee has developed sufficient strength and neural adaptations that would make testing at low RMs safe an effective (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004). Intensity is adjusted by increasing the amount lifted and using supersetting and compound exercises (several exercises for the same muscle group, or multiple exercises for different muscle groups performed with little or no rest). During the last week (microcycle) of each mesocycle, the intensity and volume are slightly decreased in order to allow time for complete adaptation to take place. Plyometric exercises are introduced accor ding to their intensity level. Low intensity exercises are first introduced followed by moderate and then high intensity exercises. Training volume Training volume is generally estimated from the total number of sets and repetitions performed in a single session. A multiple-set (three to six sets) power program incorporated into a strength training program consisting of one to six repetitions in periodized manner is recommended for advanced power training (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004). One meta-analysis (Rhea et al, 2003) concluded that four sets of resistance training produced twice the strength increases of one set. Baker et al (2001) concluded that as training volume increases, power tends to decrease and vice versa. Therefore, in order to maximize power gains in this program, the volume of the training starts at a high level and steadily decreases over time. Resistance training volume is further reduced when introducing plyometric exercises. Volume is adjusted by decreasing the number of repetitions per set or by decreasing the number of sets per session. Rest and recovery Adequate rest and recovery are addressed by allowing a full day of rest between each two successive sessions, as well as limiting number of exercises per set. Generally, rest between sets ranges from three to four minutes depending on the number of repetitions performed and intensity of the exercise. For example, a set of 6 repetitions of box jump will need four- minute- rest. When training muscle groups which act together in the same session (i.e. pectorals and deltoids), fatigue may take place. To prevent this problem the muscle groups just trained will be rested or an unrelated muscle groups such as calf group may be trained prior to the training of subsequent muscle groups that have similar actions. Plyometric exercises are performed at the beginning of the training session after a thorough warm-up. Doing so, athlete will develop maximal power before muscle become fatigued from resistance training (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004). The highest volume and intensity exercises are us ually performed on Fridays, thus allowing two-day recovery. Periodization This program is designed as a pre-season training consisting of three mesocycles, with four microcycles in each mesocycle. Each microcycle is one week long and involves training over three days: Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Conclusion This program id designed to improve the vertical jump in a professional volleyball player. The workouts are demanding but simple enough to complete in 40 minutes or less. More importantly, psychological factors have been taken into account. This is the reason for the variation in the program within each cycle. Subject may skip some workouts or be not interested in training because of physical or emotional stress. However, with proper supervision and coaching and compliance to this program, the subject will see not only increases in strength and power, but also improvement in vertical jumping and consequently physical performance.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Infamous Salem Witch Trials - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1095 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/05/21 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Salem Witch Trials Essay Did you like this example? When looking back at American history, there are many historic events that have either helped shape or change Americars future. However, one of the most memorable years has to be the year of 1692, for this was one of the most scandalous times that is famously remembered in history. This is best known as the infamous Salem Witch Trials. The Salem witch trials was a disastrous event in which certain people were either falsely or rightfully accused of practicing witchcraft and sentenced to be either hanged or sent to jail. Even though these trials took place in a number of cities within the Massachusetts Bay Colony, it was being primarily focused in the town of Salem between February 1692 and May 1693. These trials were by far the largest witchcraft hysteria in the history of Colonial America. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Infamous Salem Witch Trials" essay for you Create order The start of these trials began during the spring of 1692; a group of young girls in Salem began claiming that they have been possessed by the devil. All through the summer of 1692 the convictions mounted. The first hanging, of Bridget Bishop, took place on June 10, the next five, including Rebecca Nurse, on July 19. On August 19 five more, four of them men, were hanged (Brandt, 2014, p. 34â€Å"43). During these accusations, Mather began to defend the trials by ignoring the form of evidence based upon dreams and visions. This type of evidence is called Spectral evidence, Mather used this to convict those he believed were witches and began to become a main key in the trials of four of the five accused, unlike Bridget Bishoprs trial. The New Englanders are a people of god settled in those, which were once the Devilrs territories (Mather, 2017, p. 12). Shortly after, the court apparently overlooked Mathers warning about ignoring spectral evidence but took to heart his exhortation to c leanse the land, and the pace of the trials picked up (Hoffer, 1997). People felt the use of spectral evidence was unreliable because the Devil could take the form of an innocent person to do his evil deeds. With the girls displaying strange behaviors and showing symptoms of illness, more people in Salem began displaying the same signs of distress. Everyone became a suspect of witchcraft, and it was only a matter of time before someone accused them to be tried in court. Although most of the accused witches were women, some men were also accused. The Puritans began to fear whether or not they were to be punished and/or hanged. In his book The Salem Witchcraft Trials, author Peter Charles Hoffer describes this human fear as part of the frailty of human nature. Whether it was the fear of disobeying God or hysteria that motivated these trials to take place, the accusations did not stop anytime soon. As time went on and the number of accused continued to grow, several people became upset with the trials. Many risked their own safety by starting petitions on behalf of the imprisoned (Loiselle, 2017, p. 5). During this time period, religion was the primary focus and way of life within small colonies. In this case, those in Salem mainly followed the Puritan way of life. Puritans began to define witchcraft as associating with the devil in exchange for certain powers in order to perform such cruel acts against others. During this time, witchcraft was considered both a sin and crime because it denied Godrs own superiority and brought physical harm to others. The Puritans began to feel that these events were happening because God was punishing them for the hangings of innocent people. The fear of being punished established a tense atmosphere and enforced the idea that anything involved with witchcraft was interpreted as an act of Gods wrath. Using their own belief and fear, they wanted to make sure that every last witch were to be exposed and punished in order to end the wrath of God. By the end of May 1692, around 200 people were jailed and charged with witchcraft. Shortly after accusing hundreds of people, some Puritans actually started to wonder whether or not the girls were being truthful or just trying to be spiteful towards their enemies. It also ended when people noticed that fewer people were confessing and more people were hanging. The Salem witch hunt and trials finally ended when people began to notice that people were being accused of witchcraft even when they had no evidence. The aftermath of the Salem witch trials was severe:141 people imprisoned, 19 people executed, and two more died from other causes. After months of doing these trials, the governor finally decided to put an end to the trials in May of 1693. The trials were declared unlawful and Massachusetts formally apologized for the trials. More than 200 people were accused, nineteen of whom were found guilty and executed by hanging. It was a tragic event that took place. This time period was unique for New England because of the number of terrible things that were occurring around the same time of these trials. Historically, there had never been a witch hunt of that intensity or size in America. After the trials took place, ideas about justice started to change after the trial. Spectral evidence was no longer accepted in court and the American idea that someone is innocent until proven guilty appeared. Salem faced a major change as a result of the Puritan ambition. Because of their thought on the ideal community as a straitlaced society, those who portrayed an imperfect model were to be isolated. It has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a vivid cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations, and lapses in due processes. The painful legacy of the Salem witch trials would endure for centuries. Hundreds of people were accused of being witches and the pastors of the local churches began to have their own trials in order to determine who was and who wasnt a witch. Salem executed the most people for being witches. Although the Salem trials were not the last, because of the Massachusetts authorities actions in discovering, acknowledging, and disowning their errors, the Salem experience helped to end witchcraft trials in Western civilization (Billings Manning, 2006). The question of what specifically caused these trials has been asked for over several decades. Although it is a simple question, the answer is difficult to answer because there are numerous factors that helped build and influence the trials. The main factors consisted of politics, religion, enemies, family feuds, and the fear of witchcraft. We may never know the cause of the Salem Witch Trials, but that will not stop scholars from evolving theories.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Classical Conditioning On Operant Conditioning

Abstract Reinstatement is a phenomenon that describes the return of an extinguished response following presentation of the US in classical conditioning (Bouton Nelson, 1998). This phenomenon is dependent upon experimental context, as context promotes an association between the CS and US (Bouton, 2004). A lever pressing response was trained in rats to study the context-dependency of extinction and reinstatement in operant conditioning. The current study demonstrates that reinstatement occurs in operant conditioning, and remains context dependent, as reinstatement only occurred when subjects were presented with a reinforcer following extinction and were kept in the same context for all experimental phases. Reinstatement of an Extinguished Response is Context-Dependent in Operant Conditioning Learning processes by which stimulus-specific behaviours are developed have been studied in great depth in recent psychological literature. One such process is that of classical conditioning; the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus (US) e.g. food, with a conditioned stimulus (CS) e.g. a tone, that will elicit a response (UR), e.g. salivation. Following repeated simultaneous exposure to the CS and US, the subject will eventually exhibit a response (CR) in the presence of the CS alone (Bouton Nelson, 1998). However, the behaviours learned during classical conditioning can be removed in the extinction phenomenon; withdrawal of the US, so that a response to the CS is noShow MoreRelatedPavlov s Classical Conditioning Vs. Operant Conditioning1172 Words   |  5 PagesPavlov’s Classical Conditioning vs. B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Bhavika D. Patel Atlantic Community College Abstract Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner both studied learning, in which they both did different experiments on different animals and with different conditioning. 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To explain, Extinction refers to the process by which the steady weakening or diminishment of a conditioned responseRead More The Science of Psychology Essay1078 Words   |  5 Pagestwo main theories behind learning are Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered and studied within the behaviorist tradition. The basic assumption of Classical conditioning is that all behavior is learnt by association. It has its roots in Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiment with dogs and is thus also known as †Pavlovian conditioning†. He was successful in making the dogs salivate

Contemporary Labour System

Question: Discuss about the Contemporary labour system trends for different Countries. Answer: Introduction Negative customer reviews reflects badly on any contemporary brand. Modern labour laws explain the reason for tightening and loosening labor market trends(O'C'onnor, 2017). Nandos as a multinational with branches across the globe needs to be aware of different contemporary practices such as online customer reviews, which affect brands. It is fruitless for Nandos Qatar to mobilize its workforce for strategic performance yet fail to respect employees rights(Nandos, 2015). Management practices across the globe reveal different strategies that focus on attracting competent skills as well as retaining them. Global organizations with operations in cross-cultural locations experience challenges of sending employees to foreign countries for work due to poor government laws. Top-notch professionals prefer to work in competent organizations because of the benefits offered. Such work environments have job security and competent salaries as well as non-monetary benefits like professional develop ment. Government policies also influence the implementation of competent strategies. The adoption of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) integrates different elements in the development of a competent workforce. This discussion shows how competitors in the market obtain different results when operating in the markets. The result is different because employee factors determine success and failures of organizations (Cummings Christopher, 2014, p. 265). Talent planning in different countries Research shows that the cost of hiring new employees is high and that such employees often deliver less than expected(CIPD., 2017). Mc Donald Qatar has an organizational culture that fosters the personal and professional progress of its employees. Employee review indicates favorable working terms, pay and benefits(Indeed, 2017). This lower constraint of importing workers from its headquarters and foreign employees are happy to work at this McDonald Branch. Designed for the 21st Century, these competencies makes employees part of the team and they are happy to serve customers. Among the unique competencies that a professional in a global environment needs are cross cultural communication, IT and problem solving skills (Davidson, et al., 2012). McDonalds hires the best in academic, professional and personal training. In the same location, Nandos Qatar receives negative reviews because of its employment policies(Glassdoor, 2015). As a result, it loses employees every now and then. The brand needs to find ways of retaining its workers using the most effective tools, techniques and practices. Workers from within Qatar and outside look for growth opportunities. Contemporary management practices include improved: Recruitment Selection Planning Staff retention Training Succession planning Retirement Job dismissal among others Contemporary Labour Trends across countries The contemporary labour market supports the recruitment of talent through digital platforms like websites and social media(Ledermaier, et al., 2013). McDonald maximizes on social media portals such as LinkedIn for networking and finding the right talent for specific tasks. The presence of numerous jobs for the US is an indication of favorable labour laws in the country(McDonalds Corporation, 2017). Niche training saves on unnecessary costs and its returns are higher. Different organizations and countries concentrate on the development of human capital. In the case of Nandos Qatar, the National laws influence business operations. Qatar has been in the limelight for the unfair treatment of foreign employees(Aljazeera, 2016). Its labour ministry agrees with human rights organizations that there is need for reforms. The management at Nandos needs to be aware of new laws that allow employees to enjoy both tangible and non-tangible benefits such as free professional training, medical care, retirement benefits, and vacations. Organizational development starts with a plan to change(Cummings Christopher, 2014, p. 28). SHRM contributes to the development of the employees interpersonal, intrapersonal and professional skills. Resource and talent planning in the UK explains the success in the industry as organizations maximize on employee retention as a strategy for organizational development(Allen, 2017). As a result, Nandos UK shows better performance than Nandos Qatar(Wallop, 2015). An analysis of the differences shows that national and regional laws influence HRM strategies. McDonalds is a key player in the industry hence it appreciates this diversity in employees as much as it does of clients. As a result, its US branch shows success in all regions including Qatar. Blending the corporate culture with the national culture helps organizations to develop values that shape self-identity in individuals. Multinationals in the service industry show brands with a global presence in different parts of the globe(SHRM, 2017). Tightening and loosening the Labour Market Many global organizations face the challenge of attracting the right talent(PWC, 2014) Niche training compliments target marketing in the McDonalds case because it focuses on specific abilities of employees. Sometimes a brand recognizes the futility of training employees only for them to leave without the organization feeling the impact of the training. Tightening the labour market also affects recruitment because business organizations have a difficult time recruiting. The market shows drops in unemployment and organizations strive to pay employee more in order to retain them. This is the case with developed nations like the UK and US(Bank of England, 2016). This is different from an economy such as China where loosening the market forces led to an influx of foreign workers and MNC brands(Wong, 2016). Brands like Qatar Airway strive to recruit more skills within and outside its region. The brand is aware that most employees change jobs in search of greener pastures. Better pay, grea ter benefits, opportunities for growth, flexibility, and job security are some motivating factors(Qatarairways, 2017). The government has a role to play in this effect. In the UK, the government places restrictions in labor market processes such as hiring and firing(The Economist, 2017). When there are reports that Nandos Qatar mistreats its employees, its competitors like Time out Takes advantage of this(Timeoutdoha, 2016). However, the capitalist nature of the business market is highly monetarized leading to dissatisfaction of the workers as seen in the U.S markets. When employees find motivation in money instead of personal development, business ethics is at stake(Tyson, 2014). Loosening and tightening the employment market influences changes in the labor market. The emphasis on key performance expectations and responsibilities adds value to the UK market for a surplus of skills. This leads to a loose market with flexible recruitment and retention capacities. Most jobs today require professional skills since employers are reluctant to spend time and money training new recruits. On the job, experience is a critical success ingredient for professional jobs. However, the employer may also require additional training as a form of branding for business excellence(Breaugh, 2017). In a tight labor market scenario, there is a deficiency of skills. Competency based selection in this case may require specific capabilities and employees do not have the freedom to choose working conditions. Recent reforms in Qatars Kafala laws is a relief for foreign workers who can now leave at will(AFP, 2016). In the UK numeracy and literacy, based exams encourage competency in general abilities. Personality or aptitude testing, teamwork and problem solving skills are also important. Some companies also have online interviews but technical jobs require a demonstration of practical skills. Modern technology gives cross border organization a chance to use videoconferencing facilities for interviews(Ward Peppard, 2016, p. 39). Besides the face-to-face interviews, the telephone interview is also an ideal tool for checking communication efficiency. Government laws influence approaches adopted by recruitment partners, learning institutions, private sector (business organizations), government institutions, and professional bodies(CIPD., 2017). In Qatar, outsourcing is a new employee has become popular especially for the skilled workforce. Foreign workers from regions like Africa flock Qatar in order to offer skilled labour as well as professional services. In this case, Qatar organizations use recruitment firms to advertise for vacancies in their host countries. The UK also allows employment agencies but there are restrictions for any violations of the laws with up to 10 years jail terms (Lawrite, 2017). Strengths and Weaknesses of Talent Retention An organization becomes an employer of choice because it attracts the best professionals with its financial opportunities(Marescaux, et al., 2012). This explains why employees trained in the hospitality would rather work for Qatar Airways than Nandos. In order for any organization to achieve the objective of job satisfaction, it needs to use proven approaches to employee motivation and job performance. These include performance reviews designed using psychosocial theories of motivation and employee behavior(Marescaux, et al., 2012). Different stakeholders contribute to the creation of a conducive work environment. In the UK, the government participates in the creation of policies by preventing illegal immigrants and encouraging favorable labor laws(Home Office, 2016). Some employees are reluctant to work in foreign countries because of unfair and politicized laws. The market place competition determines whether Nandos will incorporate medical benefits as a tactic to entice foreign workers. The CIPD (2015) highlights ways in which employers can improve their brand. Qatar Airways uses its website to improve the brand elements. This digital communication portal is favorable for prospecting employees job search. Employee experience is also an important motivational factor because new workers rely on word of mouth information. The government needs favorable laws that encourage organizations to develop strategies through value proposition, reviews, and CSR practices for better brand reputation. Diversity and inclusion gives multinationals respect as workers seek for exposure. Therefore, the work pra ctices, organizations image and market place perception are critical. Challenges in managing recruitment include failure to get the required skills in the host country. This forces a multinational organization to send its workers into foreign countries as expatriates. Governments in developed countries have adopted a liberalized approach to the management of labor. This is favorable for globalization and privatization(Armstrong, 2014, p. 309). Intervention helps to reduce the cost of training new employees and importing employees. Qatar policy that stops employees from joining competitors reduces competitors wars(Pathak, S;, 2017). Globally, finding a reliable and trusted recruitment agency is a challenge because the hiring firm has different objectives from the one recruiting(Economist, 2015). Globally recognized agencies like McKinsey have a reputation for providing quality cross-cultural services using modern talent strategies. Strengths and Weaknesses of Labour Market Competitors Data based research helps to determine the existing gap in the organization (Smith, 2012). As part of best practice, modern organizations follow the market trends. Strategies used by some brands may not succeed in other. McDonalds uses technology tools for training in order to reduce on costs. Nandos Qatar faces challenges of providing interesting job assignments to inspire employees therefore it finds ways to targeting the right workers for the right positions through relevant jobs. In essence, the job specifics need to have a demographic profile showing different levels of talents across its workforce. The government has a responsibility of ensuring that all business organizations offer equal opportunities(CIPD, 2015). Niche Targeting Good job metrics identify gaps and obstacles in an organization before initiating the strategies. The UK government undertakes surveys in order to create a skill balance(Deighton, 2017). Niche targets used by McDonalds Qatar stands out from Nandos Qatar because it seeks the appropriate skills. The management has to put in place mechanisms, which create change in structures as well as employees abilities. The implementation of a clearly defined plan involves benchmarking strategies for progressive acquisition of skills that the organization requires(Thunnnisen, et al., 2013). Consulting organizations such as Price Water House Coopers carry out interviews in universities in order to tap into intelligent and gifted learners. Niche targeting helps brands to recruit through resourceful information for the job market (PWC, 2017). The deficiency of domestic workers in Qatar led to its governments plan to outsource from developing countries(NATFLEX, 1962). Appraisal, deployment and downsizing Qatar Airways makes use of performance appraisal to give feedback on employee performance(CIPD., 2017). This is a good way to involve the employee in organizational goals and plans and it has confidentiality. Some organizations may use alternatives like the 360-degree feedback, which encourages team members to approve or disapprove their workmates professionalism. However, there are challenges with this tool because it is subject to misuse, and may not give substantial information for constructive development(Jackson, 2012). Progress reports also helps the organization to understand the strengths and weaknesses as well as the available opportunities for growth. A good working environment encourages good interpersonal relationships and teamwork. Some organizations in Qatar value and consider personality and skill abilities instead of hiring any workers(Bollier, 2014). Giving equal opportunities prevents discrimination. Globally successful organizations have lost their public image due to unfairness in the workforce. Among the malpractices are racial and gender discrimination. Effective placement of employees in the right jobs motivates the team because they get good leadership and talent. It should also focus on skill balance so that the team members strengthen each other. In the event of a retrenchment, the implementation of proper procedures is necessary in order to prevent legal battles(ILO, 2016). Employment Termination Downsizing is necessary if the organization plans to deal with redundancies and financial crisis in economic recession. Global companies like Goldman Sachs face financial crisis which hiders the profitability(Gandel, 2016). However, it calls for strategies in order to target the right size and skills to reduce. Employment termination should be within the required procedure. There are national and ILO laws on dismissal, redundancy, and retirement. For example, the UK laws recommend negotiation as a solution for redundancy and prior notice termination of employment(The Economist, 2017). However, questions arise when an organization cites lack of funds during downsizing yet it increases the salaries of other workers. Competence and technical skills add value to the organization especially in decision-making processes(Ward Peppard, 2016, p. 359). Competent organizations focus on people, the right attitude, motivation and professional qualifications. When the staff turnover is higher than it should be, the company needs to redirect some resources towards retaining the employees. Reducing this staff turnover starts with identifying the reason for staff leaving. This will determine the adoption of a solution to improve the situation. Retirement should also be lawful and employees deserve their compensation. Organizations that release employees from work respectfully give new and existing workers the motivation to become part of the team(Simon, 2014). In order to maximizing employee retention, the HR manager needs to understand the market trends such as adding value to employees. Developing nations like Africa have constantly complained of brain drain but organizations in developed nations understand how to attract these professionals. Qualified employees look for job opportunities overseas because of the career opportunities available. An employee retention plan includes effective management practices. In a case where Nandos Qatar employees complain of unfairness, the government needs a new approach to supervision, improved working conditions and reward systems. In such cases, psychological contract gives HR a human face(Cassar, et al., 2015). Alternatives to redundancy In Qatar, there are legal requirements about good practice. The national laws concur with the International Labour laws on employee rights, benefits and work contracts. These laws also encourage employees to perform their duties because basic salary pay corresponds to the fulfilment of duties(Socialite, 2013). Chapter 4 of the ILO National Laws on labour, Social security and Related Human Rights (NATFLEX) explains more on the end of service compensation, which should cover the cost of living allowance for short-term employees and full rewards for long-term workers(NATFLEX, 1962). Both the UK and Qatar hospitality industries have laws governing contracts and permanent employment for foreign workers. Signing a contract provides legal proof of the agreement in case of a breach of contract. It is important that the organization consider the renewal of a contract in order to avoid exploiting the worker. There have been issues about certain controversial laws such as change of employer, which have led to reforms(Bollier, 2014). Working groups comprise of the aged employees and they need flexible terms that value their effort. In some cases, older employees could offer their services as part time workers or on short term. This is the flexible plan and it reduces the feeling of worthlessness in the retirement period. It is unfair to penalize employees retirement benefits. When employees choose to retire gradually, the phased retirement plan is applicable. Global organizations have adopted flexible approaches to retirement as SHRM. This allows employees to withdraw their pension plans and benefits when they are still strong. In the U.K, this gives a solution to economic redundancy because it allows the worker to make alternative investments in advance(Feldman Terry, 2011). The phased retirement is a tactic that enables the organization to retain employee skills and knowledge. Making the employee aware of such plans influences them to plan their lives effectively. Some of the challenges faced by developed countries like the UK involves limitations in alternative retirement options for younger employees who may have an interest in early retirement(Population Patterns, 2016). Improper planning, resource challenges and lack of cooperation from employees hinders the effective implementation of these approaches. Despite these suggestions, retirement patterns determine the trend in a country. Complaints about employees choosing to delay retirement are common all over the world. As a result, many employers are at a dilemma. The phased and flexible retirement packages help to bridge this gap(Sanicola, 2016). Role of government, trade unions and employers The development of human capital is a national agenda involving employees and labour unions as stakeholders. The government creates an environment that facilitates for the development of talent capacities. It provides resources for learning within the institutions and a system of evaluating the employees. It also ensures compliance to regulations that fosters learning and professional development(Agarwal Green, 2011). The government also carries out surveys on the impact of learning that the government. The role of trade union keeps changing to show partnership between the government, employees and union. Collective agreement in contemporary organization has a legal bearing that gives unionized workers an upper hand in contract negotiations, health and safety issues, as well as pay packages(Barrientos, 2013). These have led to reforms in different industries. Employers make the necessary contributions to the union and they have a role of cooperating in the implementation of union ag reements(Laonnou Serafeim, 2012). Conclusion Loosening and tightening the market affects organizations talent development plans. The secret behind the success of contemporary global organizations is Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). These are policies, practices and approaches that give an organization a human face. Effective strategies in the management of employees enhances performance. Resourcing and talent management covers a significant part of SHRM. It gives ideals for proper recruitment procedures and it offers suggestions on how an organization can retain its staff. However, organizational strategies succeed in an environment where there is government support. Organizations, which are keen on market trends, adopt smart tactics based on government strategies like loosening and tightening the markets. In the developed nations like the UK, mistreating workers is unethical and it destroys the brand image. Making relevant changes in policies and practices streamlines the organization for a better outlook. Investing in the employee through target or niche ensures that employees with the relevant skills are in the right position. A good recruitment plan needs to consider contemporary changes like technology use, succession plans, as well as legal procedures in an environment. This provides risk management options to avert any impending legal crisis. It is important to remember that organizational policies are subject to scrutiny by the government therefore a HR manager needs to make plans in line with the legal stipulations. Paying attention to regulations regarding termination of employment saves organizations from legal suits worth millions by trade unions References AFP, 2016. Reform of Qatar labour law to kick in Dec 2016. Gulf Times, 25 December. Agarwal, R. Green, R., 2011. The role of education and skills in Australian management practice and Productivity. " Fostering Enterprise: The innovation and skills Nexus-Research Readings, Adelaide, Adelaide: National Center for Vocational Education Research ( NCVER). Aljazeera, 2016. Qatar introduces changes to labour law. Aljazeera news. Allen, K., 2017. Service sector surge boosts UK economy to four month high. The Guardian, 4 May. Armstrong, M., 2014. Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 12th ed. s.l.:Kogan. Bank of England, 2016. A tale of two labour markets: the UK and US-Speech by Kristin Forbes. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 September 2017]. Barrientos, S. W., 2013. Labour chains: Analysing the role of labour contractors in global production netwroks. The Journal of Development studies, 49(8), pp. 1058-1071. Bollier, S., 2014. Qatar announces changes to labour laws: plan to abolish sponsorhip system and exit permits for expats unveiled, but no timeliine set for implimentation. 15 May. Breaugh, J. A., 2017. To recruitment. 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Wednesday, April 22, 2020

My Favorite Entrepreneur free essay sample

My favorite entrepreneur: Ms. Oprah Winfrey Oprah Winfrey was born into poverty by a teenage single mother in 1954 in Kosciusko, Mississippi. For the earliest years of her life she was raised by her maternal grandmother, and under her kind-hearted discipline was taught to read by the age of two and speak exceptionally by the age of three. When Winfrey was six years old, she was sent to live with her mother in Wisconsin. She was submerged into inner-city Milwaukee, and faced the hardships of growing up in the urban ghetto. Her mother had many problems of her own and was so consumed by them that she was unable to give attention to her daughter. This had many adverse consequences, and left Winfrey vulnerable to multiple counts of sexual abuse at an early age, including by her mothers boyfriend, a teenage cousin, and a family friend. She also became pregnant at the age of 14, but her son died at infancy. We will write a custom essay sample on My Favorite Entrepreneur or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As she got older, she struggled with racism and was discriminated against by her peers because of her economic status. The neglect and problems she encountered led Winfrey to develop an aggressive attitude, and eventually her mother could no longer deal with Winfreys delinquency and so she sent her to live with her father in Nashville, Tennessee. With his strict disciplinary mechanisms and value for education, Winfreys father helped her turn her life around. She became an honor student and at the age of 17 began her broadcasting career on the radio station WVOL. She earned a scholarship to Tennessee State University and studied drama and speech. At the age of 19 she landed an anchor position for WTVF-TV, Nashvilles CBS affiliate. Here she was the first African-American and the youngest person to ever be an anchor on the network. Not too late afterwards in 1976 she moved to Boston to take on a position as co-anchor for WJZ-TV evening news. However, it was hard for her to contain her emotions on many of her stories, and her attachment to the subject matter made her a poor fit for the position. She was fired for these reasons. Nevertheless, a manager at the network saw her ability to connect closely with the subjects and her excellent communication skills and found a position more suited towards her as a co-host on talk show People Are Talking. The show’s ratings soared, and Winfreys success attracted attention in the Midwest where she was offered a position as anchor on AM Chicago. It almost instantly became the #1 local talk show and within a year was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. The show was soon picked up in 120 cities and became the nation’s top talk show. However, Winfrey did not like the idea of working for someone else, and in 1986 she founded Harpo, Inc. and took on the Oprah Winfrey Show by 1988 in her own studio in Chicago. The third woman in history to own and produce her own show, as well as the first African-American to own her own entertainment production company, Winfrey was capitalizing success. The early years of the program was classified as a tabloid talk show, however as years went on Winfrey adopted broader topics such as disease, spirituality, substance abuse, geopolitics, domestic topics, celebrity interviews, and philanthropy. She herself has become one of our worlds most noted philanthropists and also hosts televised giveaways. In addition to her talk show, Winfrey acted and voiced-over in different movies and TV shows, as well as ones she produced herself like The Women of Brewster Place and Brewster Place. Furthermore, Winfrey has co-authored five books and publishes O, The Oprah Magazine and O at Home, which was dubbed the most successful start-up ever in the industry by Fortune in 2002. She also created her website Oprah. com, one of the top womens lifestyles websites, as well as Oprah’s Book Club, the largest book club in the world. Winfrey went on to co-found womens cable television network Oxygen. In January, 2011, Discovery Health Channel was changed into a new channel called OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network. Winfrey, for many years now, has been viewed as the most powerful woman in the entertainment industry, and even beyond the entertainment industry. The Wall Street Journal coined the term Oprahfication meaning therapy through public confession, and there have been numerous incidents of the Oprah effect where her public opinions influence consumer choices. She has been invited onto the corporate boards of ATamp;T, Ralph Lauren, and Intel, all of which she turned down. Winfrey holds a fairly private personal and business life, as all her employees are sworn to keep things private for the remaining of their lives, and she holds full control in all her distribution deals with ABC, Oxygen Network, and Hearst Magazines. She also holds 90% of Harpos stock. By the age of 41, Winfrey had a net worth of $340 million and replaced Bill Cosby as the only African American on the Forbes 400. She has remained the only African American to rank among Americas 400 richest people nearly every year since 1995, and is the ichest African American of the 20th century. From 2004 to 2006 Winfrey was the worlds only black billionaire and the first black woman billionaire in world history. In 2010 she took on the title of the richest self-made woman in America. Her 2011 salary was $290 million and she had a set worth of $2. 7 billion. Throughout this all, Winfrey is lives her life by two principles: live a great life for yourself and make a difference in the world. These ha ve been motivating factors for Winfrey too overcome the different struggles in her life and pull forward to a positive outcome. Her intellectual and emotional qualities paved the way for her to really connect with diverse people of difference backgrounds, values, and experiences, and to open up all sorts of subject matter in a some-how comfortable setting although very public. Her public speaking and proficient communication abilities allowed her to emerge as such a strong candidate in the industry. Even with that, Winfrey is a woman of self-improvement and took improv classes at Chicagos own Second City to work on her presence and wit in high pressure situations like on talk shows and live television. But her success isnt all in her broadcasting or talk shows. In fact, Winfrey says her success began as a third grader when she turned her book report in early. She stands by the ideas to always go the extra mile, and that we are all entitled to success. Let excellence be your brand, Winfrey says at a 2012 speech to Spellman College graduates. Winfrey is a strong believer in doing the right thing, and she guarantees that doing right will only allow for right to come back to you and carry you on your way to success. Another point Winfrey strongly upholds is finding a way to serve. She says that she doesnt serve TV she serves the world through TV, and that is what each of us should do as we find our niches to use our success as a way to serve. Furthermore, Winfrey believes it is key to know who you are and to take charge of your life. Making decisions for one’s self and pursuing goals is absolutely critical if one wants to find success. Winfrey was able to use these ideals, lessons from her life, and her true passions and talents to go from rags to riches, to become the Queen of talk shows, and a historical success legend.